Vascular Diseases of Lower Limb

Vascular diseases of the lower limb include: Peripheral Arterial disease of the legs and Chronic Arterial Insufficiency of the lower extremities.  PAD is the condition of blood vessels that supply the legs and feet. It includes the narrowing and hardening of the arteries that results in decreased blood flow, which can injure nerve and other tissues. This problem occurs due to the buildup of fatty material (plaque) on the inside wall of arteries. Plaque is made up of extra cholesterol, calcium in blood. Blood carries the oxygen to the lower extremities but plaque buildup starves the tissues and muscles in lower limb. The underlying mechanism is usually atherosclerosis. The main risk factors include cigarette smoking, diabetes, high blood cholesterol and high blood pressure.